Hierarchy of Cryptanalysis Data
There are six different classes of cryptanalysis data:

Ciphertext only.
The cryptanalyst has only access to one or more ciphertexts.

Known plaintext.
The cryptanalyst has access to ciphertexts of which one corresponds to a known plaintext.

Chosen plaintext.
The cryptanalyst has access to ciphertexts of which one corresponds to a plaintext which
he/she has chosen.

Adaptively chosen plaintext.
The cryptanalyst has access to ciphertexts of which one corresponds to a plaintext which
he/she has chosen in an interactive way.

Chosen ciphertext.
The cryptanalyst has access to plaintexts of which one corresponds to a ciphertext which
he/she has chosen.

Adaptively chosen ciphertext.
The cryptanalyst has access to plaintexts of which one corresponds to a ciphertext which
he/she has chosen in an interactive way.
Note that the classes of data are ordered so each class requires more cryptanalyst control than the previous classes,
e.g. a chosen plaintext requires more control than a known plaintext.
References
L. R. Knudsen, M. J. B. Robshaw, The Block Cipher Companion. Springer, 2011.