Confusion is concerned with making the relationship between a key and the ciphertext statistics so complicated that it cannot be exploited by a cryptanalyst.
L. R. Knudsen, M. J. B. Robshaw, The Block Cipher Companion. Springer, 2011.
A. Menzes, P. van Oorschot, and S. Vanstone, Handbook of Applied Cryptography. CRC Press, 1996.
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